Turkey is a popular destination in abroad for families who want to become parents with its affordable, state-of-the-art hospitals, experienced and highly qualified reproductive specialists. We serve patients in the diagnosis and treatment of all types of reproductive diseases in women and men, including the most severe types of male and female infertility. You can save up to 70% in fertility treatments in Turkey compared to your own country, and you can get treatment with our 24/7 interpreter service without any foreignness. We provide you all the conveniences and maximum comfort during the treatment, including airport transfer, hotel reservation, sightseeing tours
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What is IVF?
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is one of several techniques available to help people with fertility problems have a baby. During IVF, an egg is removed from the woman’s ovaries and fertilised with sperm in a laboratory. The fertilised egg, called an embryo, is then returned to the woman’s womb to grow and develop. IVF starts with egg stimulation on the second day of menstruation. One full cycle of IVF takes about three weeks. Below you will find the IVF stages and explanations
The IVF Process step-by-step
Step 1: Examination and evaluation of the couple.
At your initial appointment, your fertility specialist will review your medical history and all previous investigations and treatments. You and your partner should both attend your first appointment with your fertility specialist. The gynecologist and urologist will physically examine both of you. After all the necessary tests are examined, the fertility specialist will prepare a individual treatment protocol for you. Click for required tests before IVF
Step 2: Stimulation of Ovaries
In IVF treatment, drugs that stimulate the ovaries are commenced on the second or third day of the menstruation and this procedure takes until follicles reach 18-20 mm in diameter. During ovarian stimulation, the follicular growth is monitored by trans-vaginal ultrasonography and blood estradiol (E2) levels.When the follicles reach a diameter of 18-20 mm, the final egg maturation is triggered by injecting the last shot (Ovitrelle) and egg collection is performed 34-36 hours after this last shot.
Step 3: Egg retrieval
Egg retrieval is done 34-36 hours after hCG is administered. For example if hCG is injected on Monday night at 24:00, the egg collection procedure will start at approximately 10 am on Wednesday. Egg collection procedure is performed under sedation and takes about 15 minutes. Afteregg retrieval, patient is rested for 1-2 hours in our clinic and then discharged. Some patients may feel short-lasting and mild lower abdominal, pelvic or back pain following the procedure; in such cases, painkillers such as paracetamol (Parol) might be taken. Before retrieval, nothing should be eaten or drunk. Perfume, deodorant or scented body lotion should not be applied before the procedure.
Step 4: Fertilization
After the eggs are collected, they are evaluated by embryologists in the laboratory to determine their maturity and quality. Mature eggs are transferred to a special culture medium, placed in an incubator and fertilized with sperm previously collected and prepared through several processes. According to the treatment protocol, fertilization is performed with conventional IVF, ICSI or IMSI techniques. It takes about 24 hours for a sperm cell to fertilize an egg. Embryologists monitor embryo cell division and development
Step 5: Embryo Transfer
Embryos are transferred on day 3 when they are at the cleavage stage (6 – 8 cells) or on day 5 when they have reached the blastocyst stage. Embryo transfer is a simple procedure that does not require any anesthesia. Embryos are loaded in a soft catheter and are placed in the uterine cavity through the cervix under ultrasound guidance. Perfume, deodorant or scented body lotion should not be used before embryo transfer. Embryo transfer is a painless procedure which done with a full bladder and takes about 5 minutes. After the embryo transfer, the patient is rested in the resting room for 1-2 hours, the medication to be used, the dos and don’ts are explained by the nurse and then discharged. Patients who come abroad can fly to their countries 1-2 days after embryo transfer. In some cases, the doctor may recommend procedures such as Endometrial Scratching, ERA Test, Assisted Hatching or PGT before embryo transfer.
Step 6: Pregnancy Test (Beta HCG)
Pregnancy test is done 12 days after the embryo transfer. The medications prescribed by the doctor should be used regularly until the test. If pregnancy occurs first examination is performed within 3 weeks. Patients who live outside the city or country may have their examination with their local doctor and inform us about results.
What Causes Infertility in Women?
Age Factor: The quality and quantity of a woman’s eggs begin to decline with increasing age. In the mid-30s, the rate of follicle loss speeds, resulting in fewer and poorer quality eggs. This makes conception more difficult, and increases the risk of miscarriage.
Diminished Ovarian Reserve: Diminished ovarian reserve refers to a clinical situation in which the ovary does not contain as many oocytes as would be expected for a woman’s age. It is difficult to adequately stimulate a woman’s ovary in the presence of diminished ovarian reserve.
Fallopian Tube Problems: Damaged or blocked fallopian tubes keep sperm from getting to the egg or block the passage of the fertilized egg into the uterus.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Women with PCOS produce higher-than-normal amounts of male hormones. This hormone imbalance causes them to skip menstrual periods and makes it harder for them to get pregnant.
Ovulation Disorders: Ovulation disorders are among the most common causes of infertility in women. Caused by problems with the regulation of reproductive hormones, ovulation disorders are defined as disturbances in the production of an egg during a woman’s menstrual cycle. The disorders often occur as a result of conditions such as: PCOS, Hypothalamic amenorrhea, Premature ovarian failure, Hyperprolactinemia, Luteal phase defect.
Cervical Problems: Cervical stenosis, a narrowing of the cervix, can be caused by an inherited malformation or damage to the cervix.Sometimes the cervix can’t produce the best type of mucus to allow the sperm to travel through the cervix into the uterus.
Uterine Problems: Uterine abnormalities present from birth, such as an abnormally shaped uterus, can cause problems becoming or remaining pregnant. Also benign polyps or fibroids are common in the uterus. Some can block fallopian tubes or interfere with implantation, affecting fertility. However, many women who have fibroids or polyps do become pregnant.
Endometriosis: Endometriosis occurs when tissue that normally grows in the uterus implants and grows in other locations. This extra tissue growth — and the surgical removal of it — can cause scarring, which may block fallopian tubes and keep an egg and sperm from uniting.
What Causes Infertility in Men?
Low sperm count: A low sperm count, also called oligozoospermia, is where a man has fewer than 15 million sperm per millilitre of semen. Having a low sperm count can make it more difficult to conceive naturally, although successful pregnancies can still occur.
Low sperm motility: Healthy sperm motility is defined as sperm with forward progressions of at least 25 micrometers per second. If a man has poor sperm mobility, it’s called asthenospermia or asthenozoospermia.
Abnormal sperm morphology: Sperm morphology is a term used to describe the appearance (shape and size) of sperm. The shape of sperm is a reflection of proper sperm development (spermatogenesis) in the testicles.Poor sperm development can lead to teratospermia (also known as abnormal sperm morphology or poor shape) a condition characterized by the presence of a large percentage of sperm with abnormal shape in a man’s ejaculate. This abnormal sperm morphology can negatively impact the chances of conception.
Required Tests Before IVF
For Female Patients:
- Anti_Muellerian Hormone (AMH)
- Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
- Lutenizing Hormone (LH)
- Estradiol (E2)
- Progesterone (P4)
- Thyroid hormones (TSH and freeT3-4)
- Sonohysterogram (SHG)
- Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)
- HIV and Hepatitis B and C tests
For Male Patients:
- Semen Analysis
Additional tests for azoospermic patients:
- Hormone tests
- Testicular Ultrasound
- Y chromosome microdelation analasys
- Prior surgery reports
- HIV and Hepatitis B and C tests
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